There are currently three main research trends on the disorder of autism. The first (theory of mind) supports the idea that autism is a deficit in the capacity to generate a theory of mind, which allows the child to develop social relationships (a reinterpretation of Kanner’s loneliness). This capacity is understood to be modular (J. Fodor). According to the second theory (theory of control), the autistic symptom of sameness as described by Kanner, is crucial, although these authors do not reject the theory of mind. The third theory based on lacanian thinking, proposes that autistic disturbances are caused by the subjects’ difficulty in knotting the imaginary, the symbolic and the real. We argue that this theory leads to more differentiated and precise therapeutic strategies.